Concepts for the modernization of water management in the Bac Hung Hai irrigation system
16:00 - 10/04/2018
This study evaluated the impact of water usage is not harmonized between the sub-regions onto production and people life in Bac Hung Hai irrigation system. The results of this study showed that there are many inconsistencies in the management and distribution of water resources in a smaller scale in Bac Hung Hai system.
Concepts for the modernization of water management
in the Bac Hung Hai irrigation system
By Dong Xuan Nghia
International Conference on the Mekong, Salween and Red Rivers:
Sharing Knowledge and Perspectives Across Borders
Faculty of Political Science, Chulalongkorn University,
12th November 2016
The Red River delta includes 9 irrigation systems with duty of irrigation and drainage for both many different regions and sectors. Most of which are dependent on the water level and flow of the Red River. In this context, the water users get water more nearly water source of Red river have water storage to serve their own region The downstream areas not only suffer water shortages but also suffered getting polluted water and not guarantee to use. These have led to a serious conflict between the use water objects in different areas within irrigation systems. It also leads to conflicts between downstream regions and upstream hydropower sector.
The objective of this study is to harmonize the water demand between different water use sectors and between sub-regions in the irrigation system in the context of tensions over water use today. Also contributing to additional policies and mechanisms aimed at enabling people to express opinions, aspirations and their responsibilities in the activities related to irrigation systems management.
By using the method of impact assessment, which is a combination of technical calculations and community consultation, this research has unveiled the preliminary results of the impact on water quantity and quality to sub-regions within Bac Hung Hai irrigation system. The impact analysis has found that there is an unequal use of water between the sub-regions. There are several upstream sub-regions use water quite wasteful whereas many downstream sub-regions endure water shortage regularly. Also occurrence of water pollution spread among sub-regions due to discharge directly into the channel. This problem began around ten years ago and is growing rapidly has caused major contradictions within the irrigation system. The main reason is due to the management model of Bac Hung Hai irrigation system by one state company for general management was no longer appropriate. This study proposes a management model in a smaller scale with the establishment of water user organizations to promote the participation of citizens in the management of irrigation systems.
In the present status quo, the upstream water-users take advantage of their location and maximize their water consumption while indiscriminately discharging waste at the tail-end. Meanwhile, the downstream water-users are at a disadvantage but are passive in exercising their water rights. The severe scarcity of clean water has given rise to disputes between the local communities and the power generator industry, and between different water use sectors within the irrigation system. Thus it is urgent to find a visual method for sharing, monitoring and management of water resources. The aim of this research is to provide the scientific and practical basis to harmonise water distribution and water pollution treatment in irrigation systems of Red River Delta to solve the problem of water resources allocation between various sectors and to ensure water quality as the state standard in the region. The Red River delta has nine large distribution systems extracting water directly from the main rivers to supply water for various productive sectors and domestic water supply. In the Red River Delta, Bac Hung Hai irrigation system is the largest one, and it is exposed to the impact of the above mentioned issues.
According to the results of survey and analysis, the Irrigation and Drainage Management Company (IDMC) responsible for the management, IDMC Bac Hung Hai is the type of company to exploit irrigation works. This is a state organization to manage and exploit the key works and the main channel of irrigation systems with medium and large scale and complex operation. The remaining works on the smaller scale there is also need to manage and distribute in more specific level. But the water use organizations manage including the works system on small scale or infield irrigation system has not been managing satisfactorily. In fact, the management and exploitation of irrigation works of the basic irrigational organizations had an important contribution to maintaining and promoting the efficiency of irrigation projects in agricultural production and other economic sectors. However, the basic irrigational management in many localities of Bac Hung Hai irrigation system has not been adequate attention leads to operating efficiency of the basic irrigational organizations still less effective. So far, most of the provinces in Bac Hung Hai irrigation system have not yet regulations on development of water use organizations in the province, which means that not yet the Participatory Irrigation Management orientation is one of the causes leading to the water use organizations have not been widespread development. The allocation of funds directly to companies of exploiting irrigation works making the relationship between water users (service enjoyment) and the company (service provider) becomes weakened. While the implementation of Decree 67 focused mainly on disbursement procedures, disregard the role of water users, the strategy to develop Participatory Irrigation Management has not yet been adjusted and completed accordingly and has limited the implementation results of the strategic framework proposed.
In recent years, the irrigation projects especially the investment project of irrigation works from international organizations in Vietnam are linked to the establishment of cooperative organizations for water consumption. Some pilot projects of transferring management and establishing Participatory Irrigation Management model by Asian Development Bank (ADB), World Bank (WB), Agency of French Development (AFD), Japan International Cooperative Agency (JICA), the non-governmental organization (NGO), etc financed initially achieved some positive results, but also some models back to the starting point. Currently, the donors continue to have the large support programs to strengthen the participation of local people in irrigation management. However, most of these projects are still in the startup phase, are being or have recently been made, and have not yet the specific conclusion. Along with the activities of international projects, many localities should implement socialization manage irrigation projects through the transfer programs of medium and small works as well as forming people organizations. The participation of citizens is important contribution to the formulation, management, exploitation and protection of irrigation works. Some provinces have mobilized people to participate, to arouse the power of community, cohesion of the role and responsibilities of people with irrigation services that they benefit as An Giang, Tuyen Quang, Dak Lak, etc. However, the guidelines on the establishment and organization of operation of the cooperative organizations for water consumption in Bac Hung Hai system not yet specific. At the same time has not yet specified the organizations and individuals to sign the decision to establish and approve the charter and regulations of the cooperative organization for water use in irrigation works of commune and inter-commune. On the other hand most of the province could not arrange funds to implement the consolidation of cooperative organization for water use. So many places have not yet had cooperative organization for water use, or have had the cooperative organization for water use, but not yet enough capacity to receive the works with effective decentralization.
One of the other exists of water use organizations is the staff capacity is limited with 83% of staff are untrained on expertise and professional. Circular 40 of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (Dec/2011) has not defined the content, processes and procedures for the implementation of training and certification for water use organizations. Therefore some districts have not established the stations of exploiting irrigation or cooperative organizations for water consumption, so the district appointed temporarily officials in economic room of district to manage. The economic room of the district is an agency has the state management function combined management and exploitation of irrigation works. Moreover, the district staff is not enough manpower to manage and operate the hydraulic work, leading to the actual status is the irrigation works have not yet real managers, not ensure effective and sustainability of irrigation works.
Currently, many localities have not yet stipulated ceiling infield irrigation fee, revenues are not enough for the cooperative organization for water use to maintenance, dredging canals, payment for transferring water. This makes the works be fast degradation, damage and not effective as design. Many cooperative organization for water use disbanded risk. The advocacy on irrigation charge exemption policy under Decree 67 of the Government is not yet clear, so majority of farmers have reliant thought, don't file infield irrigation charges and don't consciously use save water. Some localities exempted irrigation charges to on-farm for people, so the people in some local suppose the Government completely free of irrigation charge for in agricultural production, so don't submit infield irrigation charges. This has a negative impact on revenues and thereby negative impact the operation, increase the risk of disintegration of the cooperative organization for water use in some localities.
The findings of this research provided the basis and criteria for sharing water and assessing water quality in the irrigation system. The research will also contribute to the improvement of mechanisms and policies on water management, and will propose new methods for making the irrigation systems of Red River delta adaptable to the major changes in the new period.
Previously, when the Red River water level was high enough, water supply was sufficient for irrigation systems of the Red River delta and the water demands for the sectors and households were ensured in all stages of the year. But from 2007 onwards, the Red River water level is becoming gradually depleted due to water storage of the upstream reservoirs. Currently, due to the very strong changes in population, land use pattern and pace of urbanization have led to the higher water demands both in quantity and quality. Also, the event of the upstream water storage makes the Red River water level go down for many years. The water demands of regions within Red River delta are always in the state of tension, but the irrigation systems do not have the sufficient capacity to meet the demands. The amount of water from the Red River flowing to downstream is no longer sufficient for the irrigation systems of Red River delta. Besides, when this meager amount of water taken through the large intakes to supply for sub-regions, water users in the areas near the Red River often do not want to share water to the other water users in the canal tail areas. Apart from the issue of quantity, the water quality issue also causes arising many conflicts. Due to the impact of strong urbanization, the emergence of the uncontrolled discharge into the irrigation systems has made many parts can’t take this scanty water source. So that is upset traditional livelihoods of the people. Instead, they have to go to other places to buy water at very high prices and even to abandon their farm and move to other jobs.
- Data and Methodology
The study was conducted in Bac Hung Hai irrigation system with geographical location in the middle of the Red River Delta, the natural areas 214,932 ha, is determined by the following coordinates: from 20º30' to 21º07' North latitude, from 105º50 'to 106º36' East longitude.
Figure 1 - Location of Bac Hung Hai irrigation system in Red river delta
After a process of discussion between the parties, including IDMC Bac Hung Hai, Department of Agriculture of the 4 provinces (Hanoi, Bac Ninh, Hung Yen, Hai Duong) and the Institute of Water Resources Engineering - Water Resources University, a strategic framework was drafted for the implementation process as shown in Figure 2. Thereby apply the following methods: (i) Method of water demand calculation, (ii) Modeling method to simulate the water supply possibility, (iii) Method of water quality assessment, (iv) Social survey method.
Assess water conflicts between irrigation units (Activities: Get the preliminary opinions of the irrigation officials and representatives of the people in the communes)
Pursuant to: Article 3 of the Ordinance on Exploitation and Protection of Irrigation Works
Divide area into sub-regions based on the basin with the same water use system (Activities: Based on topographic map and the map of people's livelihood, socio-economic to zone the areas with the general characteristics on water use)
Pursuant to: Article 9 of the Ordinance on Exploitation and Protection of Irrigation Works
Calculate water demand for each sub-region and water supply capability, evaluate water spreading to water use areas (Activity: Set simulation model for the whole system)
Pursuant to: Chapter 3 - The guiding manual of modernizing irrigation system - Vietnam Academy of Water Resources 2011
Establishing water user organizations under the sub-regions (Activity: Based on the calculated data on water demand, the clue works, the main channel and the head culverts of channel)
Pursuant to: Circular No. 65/2009 of MARD on guiding the organizations and operations to decentralize the management and extraction of irrigation works
Develop the action mechanisms of the cooperative organizations for water consumption (Activities: set the powers, responsibilities, budgets, personnel organization, training plan to enhance capacity)
Considering the gender issues in the personnel structure of the water use organization to be more representative of women who understand carefully the cultivated issues at the local
Pursuant to: Circular 75 of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development guiding to establishment and strengthening the cooperative organizations for water consumption
Pursuant to: The goal of gender equality and gender mainstreaming in the new National Partner Strategy of the World Bank's for Vietnam (FY12-16)
Figure 2 - Strategic framework for the establishment of cooperative organizations for water allocation
2.1. Method of water demand calculation
Based on the main channel, the IDMC Bac Hung Hai divided into 10 geographical regions as shown in Figure 1, each region is surrounded by the main channel. The study is based on syllabus of Planning and Design of Irrigation systems - The Agriculture Publisher 2006 to calculate water needs for each region.
- Calculating water requirement for agriculture:The on-farm agricultural water requirement is indicatedbytheirrigationcoefficientforcrops. We calculateforrice and cropsunderChapter 3 of above syllabus. Based on meteorological data, hydrology, soil, plant seeds and the growth characteristic of plants in each region, the calculated results of irrigation coefficient for the region as the Table 1.
- Calculate water demand for livestock: The number of cattle at present time and forecasts for the future are statistic under "Agricultural planning report in 2020, vision 2030" in districts such as Table 2. According to Annex C.1-Vietnam standard 4454_2012 (the water supply standard for stations, feedlots of cattle and poultry as follows:
Cattle: 70 litre per oneeachday
Pigs: 15 litre per oneeachday
Poultry: 2 litre per oneeachday
According to calculationsasChapter5 of abovesyllabus, wehave the calculatedresultsasshown in Table 3.
- Calculate the water need for economic livelihood: According to Chapter 5 of above syllabus, we calculate the water demand for livelihood is divided into urban and rural. According to Table 3.1 of TCXDVN_33_2006 standard, the standard for drinking water, living and other water demand are counted per capita for the population. For the regions of Cam Giang - Hai Duong City and Southwest Cuu An is taken under section II (Urban type II and III). The rest is taken under section III (Urban type IV, type V and rural population). The water use standard in current period is taken equivalent to water consumption standard for the period of 2010. The water use standards in future period are taken equivalent to water consumption standard for the period of 2020. The population at current time and forecasts for the future are statistic under "Agricultural planning report 2020, vision 2030" in districts such as Table 4.
The amount of water required for the regional living activities by the formula:
(Cubic meter per day night)
W: the amount of water required for living activities of people in a day (cubic meter per day night)
N: The number of people using water
q: Water consumption standard (litre per day night)
The results calculated as Table 5.
- Calculating water demand for industry: The amount of water for industry include water directly create products, water create an environment and industrial sanitation, to dilute the waste and drinking water for the workers in the factory fence. The industrial land area at the current and forecasted for future is statistic under "Agricultural planning report 2020, vision 2030" in districts such as Table 6.
According to TCXDVN_33_2006 standard, the water in the focused industrial zones is taken under the area of industrial zone with the norm of (22 cubic meter per hectare to 45 cubic meters per hectare) per day-night. According to calculations as Chapter 5 of above syllabus, the result of water requirement calculated for industry as Table 7.
- Water demand for aquaculture: The development of regional aquaculture is rapidly. The growth speed of aquaculture reached 19%, services of catching aquatic increased 17.7%. This speed showed the investment for regional aquaculture development is strong. Water surface area used for aquaculture about 10,065 hectares, a part of waterlogged and sunken area with inefficient rice production have been converted to aquaculture. The current aquaculture area in Bac Hung Hai area is 12.151 hectare. There are 3 districts of Bac Ninh with 200 hectare of concentrated cultivating and 271 hectare of dispersed cultivating. Hung Yen province has the area of freshwater aquaculture 4,500 hectare (The area of specialized fish 4,200 hectare and other aquaculture 300 hectare). For freshwater aquaculture, there are 3 types of cultivation mainly small ponds, large water surface and sunken paddy fields. According aquaculture process, the water depth need to ensure fish farming as: Small ponds 1.5-2.0 centimeter; Large water surface 2.0-3.0 centimeter; Sunken paddy fields: 20-30 centimeter. Changing water 5 times per year, each time is 1/3 water depth. However the current state of aquaculture area in the region to be medium, majority adopted in the form of semi-intensive and intensive. Among that, the small ponds with little of water supply due to scattered in residential areas. The aquaculture zones usually cultivate about 2 to 3 farming season per year: from Nov to Feb, from Mar to Jun; from Jul to Oct. Each month to change water from 1000 to 1500 cubic meter per hectare, renovated original farm 2000 cubic meter per hectare. Applying the above characteristics, we calculated under Chapter 5 of above syllabus and the results in Table 8 & Table 9.
- The flow for maintaining environment: The flow requirement to maintain flow and dilute for environmental protection in the system is taken by 10% of total water demand in the system.
- After having a total water demand of the sectors for large area, we divided according to the area proportion in charge of pumping stations. We get water needs in many positions in charge of pump stations. This data will be used to compare to water supply ability of hydraulic model in Section 2.2.
2.2. Modeling method to simulate the water supply possibility
This method applies hydraulic model MIKE 11 (Danish Hydraulic Institute) to simulate the water supply capacity at the location. Input document include:
- Cross section and longitudinal section of the channel (IDMC Bac Hung Hai).
- The water level in the upper and lower boundary (National Centre of Meteorology and Hydrology).
- Parameters and operating modes of the drain (IDMC Bac Hung Hai).
- The scenarios of flushing mode in upstream Red River (Hoa Binh hydropower plant)
+ Case 1: The average flow and water level of the Red river in upstream culvert Xuan Quan reach 1.85 meter (corresponding to the frequency of previous design 75%) corresponding to the frequency current 27.5%. The average water level of the drain CauXe, An Tho, Cau Cat, etc corresponding to frequency of 27.5%.
+ Case 2: The flow and water level on the Red River in upstream culvert Xuan Quan, downstream culvert CauXe, An Tho, Cau Cat, etc corresponding to frequency of 75% in the stages.
+ Case 3: The flow and water level on the Red River in upstream culvert Xuan Quan, downstream culvert CauXe, An Tho, Cau Cat, etc corresponding to frequency of 85% in the stages.
Figure 3 - Diagram of hydraulic calculation of Bac Hung Hai irrigation system in the model MIKE 11
When we had a complete set of input data, the model computes the results of water level and flow can be supplied at the locations in the system. These results are compared with the water demand in the calculated positions in Section 2.1, it will show the redundancy or deficit which be expressed by values. The water level results corresponding to 3 cases in some position of water regulation are shown as Table 12, Table 13and Table 14. Then we simulated the water level at the regulating drains which could ensure the water supply operation of pumping stations as Table 15. From that launched an operation mode to distribute water harmonically for regions corresponding to a case of Red River water level toughest as Table 16. Finally, based on these results, we divide the large area into sub-regions in a reasonable manner to give jurisdiction to the water user organizations.
2.3. Method of water quality assessment
In terms of water quality assessment, research was conducted to collect the results of water quality at representative measuring points on the main channel as shown in Figure 4. Total number of monitoring points are 32 points including:
- The monitoring point of water level and flow on the Red River: culvert Xuan Quan (1)
- The monitoring points on Kim Son river: culvert Bao Dap (2), culvert Kenh Cau (7), culvert Luc Dien (9), culvert Tranh (11), culvert Ba Thuy (13), Cat bridge (15).
- The monitoring points on Dien Bien river: culvert Luc Dien (9) and Bang Ngang bridge (30).
- The monitoring points on Tay Ke Sat river: fork Tong Hoa (26) and culvert Tranh (11)
- The monitoring points on Dinh Dao river: culvert Ba Thuy (13), Trang Thua bridge (24) and the fork Cu Loc (20).
- The monitoring points on Cuu An river: Bang Ngang bridge (29), fork Tong Hoa (26), culvert Neo (25), Doc Bung pumping station (22).
- The monitoring points affected by industrial emission sources: culvert Bao Dap (2), culvert Xuan Thuy (3), culvert Cau Bay (4), culvert Lac Cau (6), Doc bridge (10), Binh Han pumping station (16), culvert Binh Lau (17).
- The monitoring points affected by urban wastewater: Luong Bang bridge (29), An Vu pumping station (32), culvert Hong Quang (27) and bridge Cat (15).
- The monitoring points affected by domestic and agricultural waste water: Nhu Quynh bridge (5), culvert Chua Tong (8), culvert Tra Phuong (28), bridge Ghe (12), culvert Thach Khoi (14), culvert Doan Thuong (23) and culvert Dong Trang (21).
- The monitoring points affected by craft villages wastewater: end of Tu Ho Sai Thi river(31).
- The monitoring points of drainge water quality in the system: culvert An Tho (19) and culvert Cau Xe (18).
Figure 4 - Location of monitoring sites in Bac Hung Hai irrigation system
The data was collected from Laboratory Centre of the Institute for Water and Environment. At these locations, water samples were collected periodically, and then they were transported to laboratory to analyze through the gauge of such indicators as COD, NH4 +, NO2, Coliform. Then choose some localities with heavy pollution level to survey the issue of disease and cultivated capacity.
2.4. Social survey methods
The survey focused on the current state of the infield irrigation management and household economy in the regions have results of water shortage or contaminated water.
- The questions of infield irrigation management including: taking water and water dispute resolution, the ability to participate in the management and extraction of water resources, renovating and upgrading irrigation works, the proportion of men and women in management agencies.
- The questions about household economy include: the cost for manual pump support, the participation of women in farming, nature of work in production.
3.1. Water demand of different sectors
Table 1 - The irrigation coefficient on-farm in sub-regions for each month of the year
Unit: litre per second each hectare
Binh Giang - Northern Thanh Mien
Cam Giang - Hai Duong City
TuKy - Gia Loc
Southeast Cuu An
Northern Kim Son
Southwest Cuu An
Table 2 - Number of livestock in stages by regions
Northern Kim Son
Cam Giang - Hai Duong City<