NEEDS ASSESSMENTS AND PROPOSED FOR IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT TRANSFER FRAMEWORK AT THE COMMUNITY LEVEL IN RED RIVER DELTA TO ENSURE THE MULTI-OBJECTIVE WATER SUPPLY AND HEALTH OF THE RED RIVER

NEEDS ASSESSMENTS AND PROPOSED FOR IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT TRANSFER FRAMEWORK AT THE COMMUNITY LEVEL IN RED RIVER DELTA TO ENSURE THE MULTI-OBJECTIVE WATER SUPPLY AND HEALTH OF THE RED RIVER

NEEDS ASSESSMENTS AND PROPOSED FOR IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT TRANSFER FRAMEWORK AT THE COMMUNITY LEVEL IN RED RIVER DELTA TO ENSURE THE MULTI-OBJECTIVE WATER SUPPLY AND HEALTH OF THE RED RIVER

15:18 - 16/03/2018

RESEARCH ON THE SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL BASIS TO HARMONISE WATER ALLOCATION WITH WATER TREATMENT FOR IRRIGATION SYSTEMS IN THE RED RIVER DELTA
Community based water quality monitoring: a multi-benefit approach to water governance in the Red river basin, Vietnam
Small-scale irrigation – effective solution for sloping land areas
Assessment of climate change impacts on river flow regimes to support decision-making in water resources management in The Red River Delta, Vietnam – A case study of Nhue-Day River Basin
Impact of existing water fee policy in the Red River Basin, Vietnam

Density of on- farm canal in RRD ranks third in the country, approximately 1.85km/ ha. Accordingly, the province has highest density is Hai Phong (7,91km/ ha) and lowest is Hanoi and Quang Ninh, about 0,01km/ ha. Through on-farm canal density indicator shows the roles of irrigation systems to agricultural production in RRD.

NEEDS ASSESSMENTS AND PROPOSED FOR IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT TRANSFER FRAMEWORK AT THE COMMUNITY LEVEL IN RED RIVER DELTA TO ENSURE THE MULTI-OBJECTIVE WATER SUPPLY AND HEALTH OF THE RED RIVER

 

Nguyen Duc Viet

Directorate of Water Resources  

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD)

Hanoi, Vietnam

nguyenducvietbnn@gmail.com

Dao Trong Tu

Centre for Sustainable Water Resources and

Climate Change (CSWRCC)

Hanoi, Vietnam

tu.daotrong2013@gmail.com

 

 

 

 

Abstract— The irrigation management in Red River Delta is very important to ensure the multi-objective water supply and healthy of Red river. This study draws upon data sources including results of evaluation of water use demand for economic sectors and the status quo of hydraulic works (pumping station, canals, gates, regulating reservoirs, etc.) of Red River (study area inside the territory of Vietnam), then compare the results against the value of water supply capacity of irrigation systems in the context of effectiveness of hydraulic works has not yet achieved as original designs (approximately around 60%). Determine the relationships between - trade off - the water supply and healthy of Red River. The results of the comparison show that the water supply for agriculture production will increase dramatically in 2020 approximately 8 bill.m3/year compared to actual demand is about 13.65 bill.m3/year. And, more irrigation water may be more harmful for the Red River health, that is absolutely correct in the context of the hydraulic works also supply for other economic sectors such as industry, drinking water, aquaculture farms, etc. One of the approaches to solve these problems, which is improving the water use efficiency of hydraulic works via the irrigation governance solutions is implementation the plan for irrigation management transfer to community level to harmonize the benefits between the sustainability of water supply and the Red River health. This paper focuses on the initial research results will contribute to clarifying the tasks and objectives to implement this roadmap.

Keywords— multi-objective, healthy river, irrigation system, water supply, water shortage, irrigation governance, Red River Delta, Red River.

                                                                                                 I.      Introduction

Rivers have played an important role in the economics society development of human life. Since thousands of years, before the irrigation system exist (dykes, dams, canals, etc.), many delta regions have been formed naturally by the floodplains of the rivers. And, the Red River Delta (RRD) is one such delta. Red River has a length of 1,149 km derived from Yunnan Province, China; it flows through the territory of Vietnam before emptying into the East Sea, in which, length of the Red River in the territory of Vietnam is about 328 km.

According to Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of Vietnam, Red River Basin (RRB) is approximately 169,020 km2, of which 81,240 km2 (48%) in China’s territory, 1,100 km2 (0.65%) in Laos and 86,660 km2 (51.35%) in Vietnam. RRD is a vast land area located downstream of the Red River in the Northern of Vietnam,  area approximately 23,336 km2, account for 7,1% Vietnam's area.

Fig 1. Red river and Red River Delta in Vietnam

The total amount of water of the Red River flowing to the territory of Vietnam has been estimated at about 82.54 bill.m3/year, it carries a large amounts of sediment estimated about 125 million tons/ year (VAWR 2010), that has greatly contributed to the development of agriculture production of Red River Delta (RRD).

In RRD, the irrigation system is infrastructure essential to economic development, namely agriculture, fisheries, livestock and other economic sectors, contributing to prevention and mitigation of damage caused by natural disasters. Until now, from the large investment by the state government, the international organizations and the contributions of people, in RRD have 140 dams, 500 reservoirs and 5,500 pumping stations are getting water sources from the Red river to distribution via canal systems, length is 61,300 km (level 1,2, 3 and on-farm) [1]. In RRD has also two largest irrigation systems, which are Bac Hung Hai and Bac Nam Ha has area served up to hundreds of thousands of hectares. These systems are like "blood vessels" for development of 10 cities/ provinces in RRD, with nearly 20 million people are living.

However, according to forecasts by 2020, the capacity of irrigation systems in RRD will not be enough to meet water use demand for economic sectors due to effectiveness of management and exploitation of irrigation works reached a low. Some major reasons are: (i) Red River Basin management institutions (RBO) [2]; (ii) Widespread deterioration of irrigation systems; (iii) Water fee subsidy policy [3]. The unexpected consequences of lack of irrigated water by 2020 combine with the negative impact of climate change and sea level rise will cause serious impact to development of agricultural production and other economic sectors such as industry, navigation, tourism, etc. also leading to the degradation of aquatic ecosystems (marine ecosystems and freshwater ecosystems) of the Red river.

Besides that, communities such as water users, water user organizations, agricultural service cooperatives are an integral part of irrigation system [4]. Therefore, sustainable management of water resources is needed based on an participatory approach, related to community.

From the practical needs shows to improve the efficiency of management and exploitation of irrigation works in RRD need to promote irrigation management transfer for irrigation management organizations at community level, in order to create mechanisms mobilizing resources from the community level; for reducing the future financial burden on the state budget.

This study was based on an assumption that “Assessment the water users' perceptions about irrigation system and effectiveness of management and exploitation of irrigation works in community level, identify relationships between them as inputs (input variables). From there, identify the highest potential (output variables) of the community can  participate in operation management activities, exploitation and protection works; as a basis for building a roadmap to transfer irrigation management at the the community level”. [5].

                                                                                     II.    Material and Methods

A.    SWOT analysis method

SWOT analysis method is a very effective tool to determine the advantages and disadvantages of an irrigation organization at the community level. (Table 2) [6].

Table 2: SWOT analysis template

Source: International Journal of Innovative and Applied Research, 2014

B.    Water balance calculations method

  • Water demand calculation method:

Water use demand is the total water requirement of economic sectors such as crops, livestock, fisheries, industry and environmental flows, etc. as follows:

- Water demand for crops: calculated by software CROPWAT. Crop evapotranspiration is calculated by:

In which:

ETo: Potential evaporation has been calculated from the Penman-Monteith equation.

Kc:  Crop coefficient, which is determined by Table 3.

Table 3: Determination of growth-stage crop coefficients.

Crop

Growth-stage-specific crop coefficients

Initial

Development

Mid-season

Late season

Development

Rice

1.1 - 1.15

1.1 - 1.3

1.1 - 1.35

1.05 - 1.3

0.95 - 1.05

Potato

0.4 - 0.5

0.7 - 0.9

1.05 - 1.2

0.8 - 1.05

0.7 - 0.8

Peanut

0.4 - 0.5

0.7 - 0.85

0.95 - 1.1

0.95 - 0.8

0.85 - 0.7

Sugar

0.4 - 0.5

1.05 - 1.1

1.05 - 1.1

0.8 - 0.95

0.8 - 0.9

Source: Institute for Waterand Environment, 2014

- Water demand for livestock: the standards of the Ministry of Construction by 2020:

+ People living in rural areas: 70 (l/day/person).

+ People living in urban areas: 120 (l/day/person).

+ Cattle and buffalo: 135 (l/day/unit); Pig: 60 (l/day/unit) and Poultry: 11 (l/day/unit).

- Water demand for fishery: this is kind of water demand depends on:

+ Freshwater aquaculture: including on the rivers and reservoirs, these types do not need freshwater supply.

+ Aquaculture in ponds: require a plentiful source of fresh water for deacidification and aquatic environment to growth and development. The water deacidification is calculated using the formula:

In which:

         W: amount of water deacidification per time (m3/ha);

         ai: water layer needs to be replaced (mm);

         Ei: evaporation between 2 replaced times  (mm).

In RRD, on average, water demand for aquaculture estimated from 8,000- 12,000 m3/ ha/ year.

- Water demand for industry: in term of the industrial zone is calculated from (50- 80) m3/ ha/ day or based on the product pricing, namely:

+ Food industry: 1,000 m3/1,000 USD.

+ Light industry: 400m3/1,000 USD

+ Heavy industry: 200m3/1,000 USD

- Water demand for drinking water: drinking water supply standards are different for each region, namely:

+ Urban region: urban is 150 (l/day/person); sub-urban is 100 (l/day/person).

+ Rural region: 60 (l/day/person).

- Water demand for environmental flow: water demand for environment is the amount of water used for dilution the waster water from  production process as crops, livestock, livelihoods, industry, fisheries; estimated by 2020, demand will need about 15-20% of total water demand of whole Red River Basin.

  • Water balance calculations method: Based on the water balance equation:

Q input – Q consume  =  ±DQ

W input – W consume  = ±DW

In which:

         Qinput: Flow into the basin at the calculation points upon the rivers (m3/s).

         Qconsume: Consume flow (m3/s).

         Winput: Total flow into the basin at the calculation points upon the rivers (m3).

         Wconsume: Total consume flow (m3).

C.   Method for evaluating the effectiveness of management and exploitation of irrigation works

Using the Benchmark Assessment Criteria including 22 indicators and 29 component parameters (Table 4).

Table 4: Benchmark Assessment Criteria.

Construction management criteria (C)

C1

Cost for operating, maintenance and repairs (VND/ha)

C2

Rate of solidification canals (%)

C3

Water monitoring (%)

C4

Construction saftify (%)

Water management criteria (N)

N1

Irrigation levels (m3/ha)

N2

On-farm irrigation water use (m3/ha)

N3

Efficient agricultural water use (VND/ha)

N4

Irrigation efficiency compare with original designs (%)

N5

Irrigation efficiency compare with plan (%)

N6

External demand for agricultural production (%)

N7

Drainage efficiency for agriculture (%)

 Economic management criteria (K)

K1

Number of labor management (ha/person)

K2

Management skills of IDMC (%)

K3

Management skills of workers (%)

K4

The cost ratio of irrigation system (%)

K5

The cost ratio of labor of irrigation system (%)

K6

The cost ratio of operation and maintenance of irrigation system (%)

Water environment management criteria (M)

M1

Water quality

Water user organization management criteria (T)

T1

Density of on-field channel (km/ha)

T2

Farmers participation in water management (VND/ha)

T3

The cost ratio of water fee subsidy of WUO (%)

T4

The cost ratio of water fee collection (%)

Source: Decision No.2212/QĐ-BNN-TCTL, MARD Vietnam

D.   Method to support decision making in decentralization of management and exploitation of irrigation works at the community level.

Fig 3. Approach methodology in decentralization of management and exploitation of irrigation works based on water users' perceptions.

Research 02 the criteria: (i) To assess exploitation effective of irrigation works at the community level - dependent variable (Yi); (ii) To assess water users' perceptions of irrigation system - independent variables (Xi). (Table 5).

Table 5: Meaning of dependent and independent variables.

Dependent variable (Yi) – Exploitation effective

Y1

Effectiveness of repair and maintenance works

Y2

Effectiveness of operation management

Y3

Effectiveness of protection

Y4

Assessing the quality of irrigation services

Y5

Assessing the sustainability of irrigation management

Y6

Effectiveness of  production per unit of area

Y7

Salinity adaptation.

Independent variables (Xi) – Water users' perceptions

X1

Awareness of head works

X2

Awareness of chanel levels

X3

Awareness of points of water delivery

X4

Awareness of regulation works

X5

Awareness of owner of irrigation works

X6

Awareness of water sources from irrigation system

X7

Awareness of water fee

X8

Awareness of water price consultation rights

X9

Awareness of quality irrigation services based on fee

X10

Knowing about operation of water distribution

X11

Knowing about maintenance, repair and protection

X12

Knowing about financial planning

X13

Awareness of tidal sluices for water control, saltwater

X14

Levels of readiness for financial participation

There are major algorithms of methods to support decision making in decentralization of management and exploitation of irrigation works:

- Correlation analysis method (Pearson or Spearman).

- Multivariate regression analysis method.

- Methods of solving multi objective optimization.

- Method of the support decision- matrix making: Analytic Hierarchy Process- (AHP) [7] building support decision-matrix making, one- dimensional matrix is hierarchical forms of communities organization, the other dimension of the matrix is the construction level (level 1, 2, 3 or on-farm) of each type of irrigation works (canals, sluices, pumping stations, etc.). The value of water users' perceptions of irrigation system is factor directive.

Through the support decision - matrix making, which will determine suitable points for decentralization of management and exploitation of irrigation works at the community level according to conditions particularities of each region.

                                                                                  III.   Initial research results

A.    Assesing the status quo of of management and exploitation of irrigation works in RRD (Benchmarking)

- Density of on- farm canal in RRD ranks third in the country, approximately 1.85km/ ha. Accordingly, the province has highest density is Hai Phong (7,91km/ ha) and lowest is Hanoi and Quang Ninh, about 0,01km/ ha. Through on-farm canal density indicator shows the roles of irrigation systems to agricultural production in RRD.

- The present status of canal system is low solidification rate, causing losses water and slow transmission capabilities. Assessing the solidification level of canals across the region reached 35.22% (Figure 5), just above the Mekong River Delta (0.57%), but is the lowest compared to other regions across the country. Solidification rate is the highest reaches 79.94% loc  ated in Quang Ninh, and Thai Binh is lowest at 8.6%.

Fig 5. Comparison chart of density of on-farm canal.

Source: Directorate of Water Resources, MARD Vietnam, 2015

- On average, each staff of the Irrigation and Drainage Management Companies currently manage 124.79 hectares, which is moderate level in comparison with other regions.

- Amount of irrigated water in the paddy field (average reach of 4,700 m3/ ha), approximately 77% of the total volume of water supply at the head works of irrigation systems (reaching 6,100 m3/ ha). Therefore, the loss of water during water transmission process from head works to the field are still relatively high, up to 23%.

- Irrigation efficiency of hydraulic works is estimated at 60% compare with original designs.


Fig 5. Present status of canal and sluice in Thai Binh province.

B.    Assessing the water use demand and the irrigation water supply ability of irrigation system in RRD.

According to 3 researches: (i) Project 1: planning using integrated water Red River Basin; (ii) Project 2: scientific basis and operating practices for water supply in dry season of RRD; (iii) Project 3: 2nd Red River Basin regarding water demand of economic sectors of the RRB in the territory of Vietnam, phase 2010-2020 as follows:

Table 6: Water demand of economic sectors in the RRB

Sources: IWRP 2007, WRU 2008 and ADB3 2005

These results show that total water demand of the economic sectors in RRB in Vietnam by 2020 is estimated at 23 bill.m3/ year of that 81 - 98% for RRD (IWRP 2007). In comparison with water demand of other sectors, water demand of agriculture production is largest; it is about 13.65 bill.m3/year, accounted for 16.4% of total annual flow generated of the Red River in Vietnam.

However, effectiveness of hydraulic works has not yet achieved as original designs due to some reasons:

- Most of hydraulic works have been built about 40 years ago, therefore, these works has now been degraded over time.

- Poor management of Irrigation and Drainage Management Companies (IDMC).

- Lack of budgets to upgrade, repair and maintenance the hydraulic works.

At the present time, the efficiency of water irrigation system of RRD is approximately around 60% (MARD 2014); if so, forecast to in 2020, the Red River needed to be supplied amount of water is about 21.5 bill.m3/year, increase flow by about 8 bill.m3/year compared to actual demand (13.65 bill.m3/year).

C.   Assessing the impact of water supply scenarios by 2020 for production and Red river health

  • Scenario 01: concerning only water supply:

To meet the increasing water demand for agriculture production and other economic sectors by 2020, hydraulic works will have to receive more water from the Red River, this trade-offs would be a negative impact of the Red River health. Continued from analyzing as mentioned above, not all the irrigation water will be "disappear" completely, after being used partly for human productive activities, especially agriculture production, majority of irrigated water will be back to the Red River by many ways, such as via the drainage canals or groundwater. Unfortunately, most irrigation supplies contain very high concentrations of these toxic and are generally quite big problems, which are the water quality and salinity intrusion (Figure 6), namely:

- The water quality: after water is used in the irrigated lands, it will drain back to the Red River, and irrigated water carries a lot of the residual of plant protection products, fertilizer on the field, waste discharge from handicraft villages, industry parks, etc.; in consequence, poor water quality and pollution have negative impact on ecological characteristics of the Red River. 

  • The salinity intrusion: use more water for irrigation systems along the Red River leads to lack of water to push salinity in the estuaries, so the combined effects of salinity intrusion and sea level rise (due to climate change) resulted in degradation of coastal ecosystems

Fig 6. Relationship between Red river and Red River Delta.

  • Scenario 02: concerning only Red River health:

Frankly, there is an assumption, many environmental protection agencies of Government and NGOs will protest, therefore, this trade-off usually involves the irrigation systems will have to use less water from the Red River, in consequence, not getting enough water to service agriculture production and other economic sectors lead to impact on development of RRD.

D.   Assessing the water users' perceptions of irrigation system of community level in RRD

Basis correlation analysis between 14 indicators regarding water users' perceptions about irrigation system and each indicator about exploitation effective of irrigation works at the community level (7 indicators) were conducted in Bac Hung Hai irrigation system. The results will be presented in next conference paper.

Conclusions

Compare the values of the water use demand and effectiveness of hydraulic works shows that water supply for agriculture production will increase dramatically in 2020 approximately 8 bill.m3/year compared to actual demand is about 13.65 bill.m3/year. And, more irrigation water may be more harmful for the Red River health. That is absolutely correct in the context of the hydraulic works not only provide irrigation water for agriculture production, which also supply for other economic sectors such as industry, drinking water, aquaculture farms, etc.

Therefore, to harmonize the benefits between the sustainability of water supply and the Red River health, one of the approaches to solve these problems, which is building a plan for the irrigation management transfer (IMT) at the community level in order to create mechanisms to mobilize resources from water users, water cooperatives, cooperative service, etc. to upgrade, repair irrigation works  aim to reduce water loss and also reduce the burden on the state budget.

Proposed for irrigation management transfer framework at the community level in RRD will be presented in next conference paper.

References

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[2]     C. T. Hoanh, François Molle, Implementing Integrated River Basin Management: Lessons from the Red River Basin, Vietnam, no. IWMI Research Report 131. 2009.

[3]     V. H. Chau and W. R. Planning, “The Red River Basin Organization in Integrated Water,” pp. 1–28.

[4]     Fao, Agricultural drainage water management in arid and semi-arid areas, vol. Paper 61. 2002.

[5]     N. D. Viet, N. Van Tinh, and L. Van Chinh, “Decentralization of management and exploitation of irrigation works in Mekong River Delta - An approach based on community perceptions,” Journal of Water Resources Science and Technology, vol. 32, pp. 20–28, 2015.

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