STUDY TO PROPOSE AN INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR DROUGHT MANAGEMENT IN RED RIVER DELTA

STUDY TO PROPOSE AN INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR DROUGHT MANAGEMENT IN RED RIVER DELTA

STUDY TO PROPOSE AN INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR DROUGHT MANAGEMENT IN RED RIVER DELTA

11:02 - 15/03/2018

RESEARCH ON THE SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL BASIS TO HARMONISE WATER ALLOCATION WITH WATER TREATMENT FOR IRRIGATION SYSTEMS IN THE RED RIVER DELTA
Community based water quality monitoring: a multi-benefit approach to water governance in the Red river basin, Vietnam
Small-scale irrigation – effective solution for sloping land areas
Assessment of climate change impacts on river flow regimes to support decision-making in water resources management in The Red River Delta, Vietnam – A case study of Nhue-Day River Basin
Impact of existing water fee policy in the Red River Basin, Vietnam

The Red River delta, located at downstream of the Red River system, consists of 10 provinces and cities, among them, Hanoi as the capital and Hai Phong as the biggest harbor city in the North. With a population of 19.6 million and total rice cropping area of 0.8 million ha, the delta is traditionally a key economic region and the second largest granary in Vietnam.

Context of the study


Figure 1. Location of Red River delta

The Red River delta, located at downstream of the Red River system, consists of 10 provinces and cities, among them, Hanoi as the capital and Hai Phong as the biggest harbor city in the North. With a population of 19.6 million and total rice cropping area of 0.8 million ha, the delta is traditionally a key economic region and the second largest granary in Vietnam.

Since 1998, the water level (WL) at Ha Noi has decreased at an astonishing speed. Several extreme drought events can be recognized as 1998-1999, 2003-2004, 2004-2005, 2005-2006, 2006-2007, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 [1]. In 2010, due to the 2009-year rainy season ended soon, the rainfall was low, and the high temperature lasted long, the base flow significantly decreased, and the inflows to upstream hydropower reservoirs was very small, therefore, after releasing the agricultural water of the transplanting period (Figure 3) and to keeping the storage for the coming Jun-Aug hot period, the upstream reservoirs nearly stopped operation. As a result, WL at Ha Noi dropped to a historical value of 0.1 m, at which, walking across the river was possible (Figure 2).


Figure 2. Red river dried up in Feb 2010

 


Figure 3. Agricultural water releases of Hoa Binh reservoir

                       

Flowingly, the saline intrusion occurred on the large scale of the coastal region (Figure 4). And even protected by the dike system, the salt water greatly reduced the operational time of the water intakes. Low WL and salt water were really causes of a crisis in taking water for the crops on the whole delta.


Figure 4. Saline intrusion in 2010

   To cope with that, many measures were applied, from enhanced media for raising the public awareness, using a high number of temporary pumps at any time and any places, and utilizing any storage structures possible, etc. Therefore, the cost could be up to thousands billion VND. For example, the central budget subsidy for water fee has risen significantly, about 5 times from 660 bill. VND in 2008 to 2,993 bill. One of the main reasons that was indicated by the Directorate of Water Resources under MARD is the lacking of a institutional framework for drought management, which focus on resolving the overlapping of water governance among Ministries and Agencies in planning, construction, response and recovery.

            Objectives and some preliminary results

            Objectives

The overall study objective is to examine the current situation for drought management through the lens of risk management and livelihood sustainability, based on that, providing a institutional framework for effective drought management in Red River delta.

            Preliminary results about review of water governance for drought management in the region

So far, the review shows that the drought will continue increase in both frequency and intensity, and greater impacts might be expected in the future due to some shortcomings related to water governance as follows:

- As an international river, the water management that must be conducted in a beneficial harmony with China is really a challenge when information sharing and water dialogues are not available.

- Have still managed by the administrative boundary way that should be replaced by a method of integrated and sustainable river-basin water management.

- Have not done overall water resources planning. Currently, separate plans are conducted such as water intakes, hydropower etc., and the link to other plans such land-use, forest etc., is not realized. And in fact, the practice and implementation are weak.

- Overexploitation of ground water has caused degraded water resources and ground subsides.

- Water use in agriculture is waste. The policy of water fee exemption should be removed and replaced by the service-oriented water fee.

- And the overlapping in water governance especially at the central level (Figure 5) makes many difficulties in achieving integrated solutions for drought especially in preparedness, mitigation, and prediction and early warning activities. In even, many droughts actual were worsen by human causes rather than nature [1].

 


Figure 5 . Current water governance on Red river system (adapted from [2]

 

            The preliminary results indicate that the shortcomings related to water governance in general are the major obstacles to go forward to “risk management” way which put focus on preparedness, mitigation, and prediction and early warning activities  [3]. Further analysis will be conducted, the results and proposals of institutional frame for drought management in the region will provided at the next blog.

 

            Reference.

 

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[1]

Nguyễn Lan Châu, "Rà soát tác động của hệ thống hồ chứa trên sông Đà và sông Lô trong mùa khô và đề xuất giải pháp đảm bảo nguồn nước cho vùng hạ du”," 2010.

[2]

Tu Trong Dao, "Water governance in Vietnam," in Vetnam Water Patnership and ADB, Ha Noi, 2015, pp. 51-59.

[3]

Donald A. Wilhite, Michae J. Hayes, Cody Knutson, and Kelly Helm Smith, "Planning for drought moving from crisis to risk management," American water resources assocication, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 697-710, Aug. 2000.

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